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Reasonable Faith features the work of philosopher and theologian Dr. William Lane Craig and aims to provide in the public arena an intelligent, articulate, and uncompromising yet gracious Christian perspective on the most important issues concerning the truth of the Christian faith today, such as:
-the existence of God
-the meaning of life
-the objectivity of truth
-the foundation of moral values
-the creation of the universe
-the reliability of the Gospels
-the uniqueness of Jesus
-the historicity of Jesus' resurrection
-the challenge of religious pluralism
From galaxies and stars, down to atoms and subatomic particles, the very structure of our universe is determined by these numbers:
Speed of Light: c=299,792,458 m s-1
Gravitational Constant: G=6.673 x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2
Planck's Constant: 1.05457148 x 10-34 m2 kg s-2
Planck Mass-Energy: 1.2209 x 1,022 MeV
Mass of Electron, Proton, Neutron: 0.511; 938.3; 939.6 MeV
Mass of Up, Down, Strange Quark: 2.4; 4.8; 104 MeV (Approx.)
Ratio of Electron to Proton Mass: (1,836.15)-1
Gravitational Coupling Constant: 5.9 x 10-39
Cosmological Constant: (2.3 x 10-3 eV)
Hubble Constant: 71 km/s/Mpc (today)
Higgs Vacuum Expectation Value: 246.2 GeV
These are the fundamental constants and quantities of the universe. Scientists have come to the shocking realization that each of these numbers have been carefully dialed to an astonishingly precise value - a value that falls within an exceedingly narrow, life-permitting range. If any one of these numbers were altered by even a hair's breadth, no physical, interactive life of any kind could exist anywhere. There'd be no stars, no life, no planets, no chemistry.
Consider gravity, for example. The force of gravity is determined by the gravitational constant. If this constant varied by just one in 1,060 parts, none of us would exist. To understand how exceedingly narrow this life-permitting range is, imagine a dial divided into 1,060 increments. To get a handle on how many tiny points on the dial this is, compare it to the number of cells in your body (1,014) or the number of seconds that have ticked by since time began (1,020). If the gravitational constant had been out of tune by just one of these infinitesimally small increments, the universe would either have expanded and thinned out so rapidly that no stars could form and life couldn't exist, or it would have collapsed back on itself with the same result: no stars, no planets, no life.
Or consider the expansion rate of the universe. This is driven by the cosmological constant. A change in its value by a mere 1 part in 10,120 parts would cause the universe to expand too rapidly or too slowly. In either case, the universe would, again, be life-prohibiting.
Or, another example of fine-tuning: If the mass and energy of the early universe were not evenly distributed to an incomprehensible precision of 1 part in 1,010,123, the universe would be hostile to life of any kind.
The fact is our universe permits physical, interactive life only because these, and many other numbers, have been independently and exquisitely balanced on a razor's edge.
"WHEREVER PHYSICISTS LOOK, THEY SEE EXAMPLES OF FINE-TUNING." - Sir Martin Rees
"THE REMARKABLE FACT IS THAT THE VALUES OF THESE NUMBERS SEEM TO HAVE BEEN VERY FINELY ADJUSTED TO MAKE POSSIBLE THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE." - Stephen Hawking
"IF ANYONE CLAIMS NOT TO BE SURPRISED BY THE SPECIAL FEATURES THE UNIVERSE HAS, HE IS HIDING HIS HEAD IN THE SAND. THESE SPECIAL FEATURES ARE SURPRISING AND UNLIKELY." - David Deutch
What is the best explanation for this astounding phenomenon? There are three live options. The fine-tuning of the universe is due to either physical necessity, chance, or design. Which of these options is the most plausible?