FANDOM


Argumento da sintonia fina
Introdução
Exposição
Crítica
Materiais

A defesa do argumento de sintonia fina para a existência de Deus inclui não apenas a estruturação do argumento num esquema lógico, mas também, de forma mais marcante, a apresentação das alegadas constantes e quantidades que defendem a premissa de que o universo é "sintonizado para a vida".

Evidências de Design no Universo Edit

Existe cerca de 50 constantes e quantidades no Universo que constituem no argumento da sintonia fina.[1] Segue uma lista com algumas destas evidências.[2]

Exemplos de evidências de design
1 Gravitational coupling constant Se maior No stars less than 1.4 solar masses, hence short stellar life spans
Se menor No stars more than 0.8 solar masses, hence no heavy element production
2 Strong nuclear force coupling constant Se maior No hydrogen; nuclei essential for life are unstable
Se menor No elements other than hydrogen
3 Weak nuclear force coupling constant Se maior All hydrogen is converted to helium in the big bang, hence too much heavy elements
Se menor No helium produced from big bang, hence not enough heavy elements
4 Electromagnetic coupling constant Se maior No chemical bonding; elements more massive than boron are unstable to fission
Se menor No chemical bonding
5 Ratio of protons to electrons formation Se maior Electromagnetism dominates gravity preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation
Se menor Electromagnetism dominates gravity preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation
6 Ratio of electron to proton mass Se maior No chemical bonding
Se menor No chemical bonding
7 Expansion rate of the universe Se maior No galaxy formation
Se menor Universe collapses prior to star formation
8 Entropy level of universe Se maior No star condensation within the proto-galaxies
Se menor No proto-galaxy formation
9 Mass density of the universe Se maior Too much deuterium from big bang, hence stars burn too rapidly
Se menor No helium from big bang, hence not enough heavy elements
10 Age of the universe Se mais velho No solar-type stars in a stable burning phase in the right part of the galaxy
Se mais novo Solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed
11 Initial uniformity of radiation If smoother Stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed
If coarser Universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space
12 Average distance between stars Se maior Heavy element density too thin for rocky planet production
Se menor Planetary orbits become destabilized
13 Luminosidade solar If increases too soon Runaway green house effect
If increases too late Frozen oceans
14 Fine structure constant[nota 1] Se maior No stars more than 0.7 solar masses
Se menor No stars less then 1.8 solar masses
15 Decay rate of the proton Se maior Life would be exterminated by the release of radiation
Se menor Insufficient matter in the universe for life
16 12C to 16O energy level ratio Se maior Insufficient oxygen
Se menor Insufficient carbon
17 Decay rate of 8Be Se mais devagar Heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in all the stars
Se mais rápido No element production beyond beryllium and, hence, no life chemistry possible
18 Mass difference between the neutron and the proton Se maior Protons would decay before stable nuclei could form
Se menor Protons would decay before stable nuclei could form
19 Initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleons Se maior Too much radiation for planets to form
Se menor Not enough matter for galaxies or stars to form
20 Tipo de galáxia Se muito elíptica Star formation ceases before sufficient heavy element buildup for life chemistry
Se muito irregular Radiation exposure on occasion is too severe and/or heavy elements for life chemistry are not available
21 Parent star distance from center of galaxy Se mais longe Quantity of heavy elements would be insufficient to make rocky planets
Se mais perto Stellar density and radiation would be too great
22 Number of stars in the planetary system Se mais de um Tidal interactions would disrupt planetary orbits
Se menos de um Heat produced would be insufficient for life
23 Parent star birth date Se mais recente Star would not yet have reached stable burning phase
Se menos recente Stellar system would not yet contain enough heavy elements
24 Parent star mass Se maior Luminosity would change too fast; star would burn too rapidly
Se menor Range of distances appropriate for life would be too narrow; tidal forces would disrupt the rotational period for a planet of the right distance; uv radiation would be inadequate for plants to make sugars and oxygen
25 Parent star age Se mais velho Luminosity of star would change too quickly
Se mais novo Luminosity of star would change too quickly
26 Parent star color Se mais avermelhado Photosynthetic response would be insufficient
Se mais azulado Photosynthetic response would be insufficient
27 Supernovae eruptions Se muito perto Life on the planet would be exterminated
Se muito distantes Not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets
Se muito infrequente Not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets
Se muito frequente Life on the planet would be exterminated
28 White dwarf binaries Se muito poucas Insufficient fluorine produced for life chemistry to proceed
Se muitas Disruption of planetary orbits from stellar density; life on the planet would be exterminated
29 Surface gravity (escape velocity) Se mais forte Atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane
Se mais fraco Planet's atmosphere would lose too much water
30 Distance from parent star Se mais distante Planet would be too cool for a stable water cycle
Se mais perto Planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle
31 Inclination of orbit Se muito grande Temperature differences on the planet would be too extreme
32 Orbital eccentricity Se muito grande Seasonal temperature differences would be too extreme
33 Axial tilt Se maior Surface temperature differences would be too great
Se menos Surface temperature differences would be too great
34 Rotation period Se mais longo Diurnal temperature differences would be too great
Se mais curto Atmospheric wind velocities would be too great
35 Gravitational interaction with a moon Se maior Tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would be too severe
Se menos Orbital obliquity changes would cause climatic instabilities
36 Campo magnético Se mais fortes Electromagnetic storms would be too severe
Se mais fracas Inadequate protection from hard stellar radiation
37 Thickness of crust Se mais espessa Too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to the crust
Se mais fina Volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great
38 Albedo (ratio of reflected light to total amount falling on surface) Se maior Runaway ice age would develop
Se menos Runaway green house effect would develop
39 Oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere Se maior Advanced life functions would proceed too quickly
Se menor Advanced life functions would proceed too slowly
40 Carbon dioxide level in atmosphere Se maior Runaway greenhouse effect would develop
Se menos Plants would not be able to maintain efficient photosynthesis
41 Water vapor level in atmosphere Se maior Runaway greenhouse effect would develop
Se menos Rainfall would be too meager for advanced life on the land
42 Ozone level in atmosphere Se maior Surface temperatures would be too low
Se menos Surface temperatures would be too high; there would be too much uv radiation at the surface
43 Atmospheric electric discharge rate Se maior Too much fire destruction would occur
Se menos Too little nitrogen would be fixed in the atmosphere
44 Oxygen quantity in atmosphere Se maior Plants and hydrocarbons would burn up too easily
Se menos Advanced animals would have too little to breathe
45 Oceans to continents ratio Se maior Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited
Se menor Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited
46 Soil materializations Se muitos nutrientes pobres Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited
Se muitos nutrientes ricos Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited
47 Seismic activity Se maior Too many life-forms would be destroyed
Se menos Nutrients on ocean floors (from river runoff) would not be recycled to the continents through tectonic uplift

Notas

  1. A function of three other fundamental constants, Planck's constant, the velocity of light, and the electron charge each of which, therefore, must be fine-tuned.

Referências

  1. Does God Exist? (vídeo) (em inglês). Debate entre William Lane Craig e Peter Atkins. YouTube.
  2. Ross, Hugh. Evidence For Design In The Universe (em inglês). Limits for the Universe. Página visitada em 31 de maio de 2010.

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.